Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a common condition. It affects men and women of all ages, but is more common in people over 60 years of age. The cartilage lining the joint (which normally cushions the bones in the hip joint) becomes damaged and worn. This inhibits the smooth movement of the joint and causes severe pain.
Hip Tendon Pain
People of all ages can be affected by hip tendon pain. It is common for certain tendons around the hip to be injured during sporting activities, and hence it is commonly seen in younger patients. The most common form of hip tendon pain however is seen in middle age people, and it is estimated up to 25% of this group are affected by this condition at some point in their life.n.
Hip Impingement (FAI)
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), commonly known as hip impingement, is an important cause of hip or groin pain. It is a newly identified cause of pain, being more common in the younger age group. It is increasingly seen as a cause of premature osteoarthritis of the hip. The primary problem in FAI is an abnormality of the shape of the hip. This can be thought of as too much bone in the wrong place, either around the ball of the joint (a CAM lesion), or around the socket (a PINCER lesion). Occasionally a mixture of both is seen.in.
The labrum is a cartilaginous ring surrounding the socket of the hip joint. It is an important structure of the hip joint, forming a seal around the hip and also performing a shock absorbing function. Through injury, degenerative changes or femeroacetabular impingement, the labrum can become torn. This is a source of pain.
Developmental Hip Conditions
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a condition where the ‘ball and socket’ joint of the hips doesn’t properly form in babies and young children. It is also known as hip dysplasia. In DDH, the socket of the hip is too shallow.
It is a spectrum disorder, ranging from very mild to a very severe form. Often the diagnosis is made shortly after birth, and treatment then takes place. In its very mild form however (shallow socket), it often goes undiagnosed.
People with dysplasia of the hip usually present later as young adults with hip pain and osteoarthritis of the hip.
Avascular Necrosis of the Hip (AVN)
Avascular necrosis (AVN), also called osteonecrosis, bone infarction, aseptic necrosis, and ischemic bone necrosis, is cellular death (necrosis) of bone due to interruption of the blood supply. Without blood, the bone tissue dies and the bone collapses. If avascular necrosis involves the bones of a joint such as the hip, it often leads to destruction of the joint articular surfaces.
There are known causes of AVN, but often no obvious cause is identified. Common causes include corticosteroid use, excess alcohol intake, and previous trauma to the hip joint (fracture of the hip, traumatic dislocations of hip).
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